Computer Programming Methodology

History of Programming

What is a Programming Language

  • Programming language is a set of words, symbols, and codes that enables a programmer to communicate a solution algorithm to a computer
  • It is needed to allow human begins and computers to talk to each other
  • A programmer can use a variety of programming languages to code a progr
  • A program development tool consists of user-friendly software products designed to assist both programmers and non-technical users with the creation of information system solutions.

Generation of Programming Langu

  • The first generation of language was the machine language. The machine language instruction uses a series of binary digits or a combination of numbers and letters that represents binary digits. Instructions and addresses were numerica
  • The second generation of language was the symbolic instructions or mnemonics and addresses. To convert the assembly language source programme into machine language, you use an assembler. Example, IBM, BAL and VAX macro.
  • The third generation language was the programmer concentration of structured programming and database management. It is a procedural language that requires the programme instruction to tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it. Example, FORTRAN, ADA, COBOL, Pascal, C and BASIC.
  • The fourth generation (4GL) was the non-procedural type language. The programmer only specifies what the programme should accomplish without explaining how. Example. SQL, Postscript, and relational database orientation.
  • The fifth generation (5GL) was concerned on Artificial Intelligence and Fuzzy Logic.

Advantages and disadvantages of each generation of language

  • Readability of the language
  • Ease of writing the language
  • Reliability of the language
  • Cost of development
  • Syntax complexity
  • Language standards

Language Models

  • Imperative Languages
  • Functional Languages
  • Logic Programming
  • Object-oriented
  • Declarative
  • Scripting
  • Parallel
Object –Oriented Programming and Concepts

Introduction to Object Oriented Programming and concepts

What is OOP?

  • A revolutionary concept that changed the rules in computer programme development, object-oriented programming (OOP) is organised around "objects" rather than "actions," data rather than logic.
  • Object-orientation is a technique for system modeling.

Object oriented programming provides:

  • A system that can be constructed from a set of objects
  • New abilities to existing objects that can expand a system
  • Creating new objects can expand a system

Object:-is an entity able to save a state (information) and which offers a number of operations (behavior) to either examine or effect of this state.

Class:-represents a template for several objects and describes how these objects are structured internally. Objects of the same class have the same definition both for their operations and for their information structure.

An instance:-is an object created from a class. The class describes the structure of the instance, while the current state of the instance is defined by the operations performed on the instance.

Polymorphism means that the sender of a stimulus does not need to know the receiving instance’s class. The receiving instance can belong to an arbitrary.

Inheritance:- As objects do not exist by themselves but are instances of a CLASS, a class can inherit the features of another class and add its own modifications. (This could mean restrictions or additions to its functionality). Inheritance aids in the reuse of code. Classes can have 'Children' that is, one class can be created out of another class. The original or parent class is known as the SuperClass (or base class). The child class is known as the SubClass (or derived class).

Encapsulation (or information hiding):-is a principle, about hiding the details of the implementation of the interface. It is to reveal as little as possible about the inner workings of the Interface.



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